Medical and Entomological Malarial Interventions, a Comparison and Synergy of Two Control Measures Using a Ross/Macdonald Model Variant and Openmalaria Simulation

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Using an established Ross/Macdonald model variant for mosquito-born parasite transmission, we extend the formalism to simply incorporate time-dependent control measures. In particular, two interventions are considered, mass drug administration (MDA) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), whose individual intensities during their respective campaigns are set to the same intervention-reduced reproductive number R0. The impacts of these interventions, measured as each campaign’s ability over time to reduce infections in a community, are found based on the transmission setting, coverage, and their associated durations. These impacts are compared for both interventions and their joint deployment. Synchronous campaigns of IRS deployed with MDA have a cooperative, synergistic effect whose impact exceeds that when the campaigns are deployed in isolation. Simulations with openmalaria, with its more complex model of transmission, are separately performed and show a similar impact enhancement with these interventions. A new, associated analysis yields simple scaling relationships that estimate the dynamical resurgence time, post-intervention, to infection proliferation in a community.