There is a growing interest to apply the immersed boundary method to compute wind fields over arbitrarily complex terrain. The computer implementation of an immersed boundary module into an existing flow solver can be accomplished with minor modifications to the rest of the computer program. However, a versatile preprocessor is needed at the first place to extract the essential geometric information pertinent to the immersion of an arbitrarily complex terrain inside a 3D Cartesian mesh. Errors in the geometric information can negatively impact the correct implementation of the immersed boundary method as part of the solution algorithm. Additionally, the distance field from the terrain is needed to implement various subgrid-scale turbulence models and to initialize wind fields over complex terrain. Despite the popularity of the immersed boundary method, procedures used in the geometric preprocessing stage have received less attention. The present study found that concave and convex regions of complex terrain are particularly challenging to process with existing procedures discussed in the literature. To address this issue, a geometric preprocessor with a distance field solver was presented, and the solver demonstrated its versatility for arbitrarily complex geometry, terrain, and urban environments. The distance field solver uses the initial distance field at the immersed boundaries and propagates it to the rest of the domain by solving the Eikonal equation with the fast sweeping method.
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Senocak, Inanc; Sandusky, Micah; DeLeon, Rey; Wade, Derek; Felzien, Kyle; and Budnikova, Marianna. (2015). "An Immersed Boundary Geometric Preprocessor for Arbitrarily Complex Terrain and Geometry". Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 32(11), 2075-2087.