Background. The interaction between a shoe and a turf surface is highly complex and difficult to characterize. Over the three decades since artificial turf was introduced, researchers have attempted to understand the traction caused by the interaction. However, some of the methodologies used for traction measurements have not capitalized on advances in currently available technology for testing and most testing conditions have not simulated realistic physiological loads.
Method of Approach. To assess the effect of test condition on traction results, the newly designed TurfBuster testing device was used to collect traction data on FieldTurf™ brand artificial turf under varying conditions. Four cleated athletic shoes were tested under eight different vertical loads ranging from 222-1780 N. The static, dynamic, and peak traction coefficient values were calculated and averaged over three trials for each shoe and condition.
Results. In all but the lowest vertical load condition, the static traction coefficient was less than the dynamic traction coefficient. There was a distinct separation found between 666 N and 888 N loading conditions for all three variables measured. Below the load condition of 666 N only one significant difference was found in all comparisons across and within shoe styles. Above 888 N multiple differences were found across shoe styles, but differences were not found within a shoe style until a load of at least 1554 N.
Conclusions. At loads below 666 N the cleats perform almost identically at all three variables measured, static, dynamic, and peak traction coefficients. At loads above 888 N, shoe traction was different among the cleat styles for all traction variables. However, at loads between 888 N and 1334 N there were no differences found within a shoe style. This implies that each shoe has no performance difference in loads representative of up to one bodyweight. Due to these results the measurement of traction characteristics between cleated shoes and FieldTurf should be conducted at a load of at least 888 N to determine differences across shoe styles and loads ranging from 888 N to at least 1554 N to determine individual shoe characteristics.
This is an author-produced, peer-reviewed version of this article. The final, definitive version of this document can be found online at Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology published by SAGE. Copyright restrictions may apply. DOI: 10.1243/17543371JSET56
Kuhlman, Seth M.; Sabick, Michelle B.; Pfeiffer, Ronald; Cooper, Benjamin; and Forhan, Jackie. (2010). "Effect of Loading Condition on Traction Coefficient Between Shoes and Artificial Turf Surfaces". Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 224(2), 155-165.