Higher education Spanish programs in the United States are diverse and complex, especially when it comes to student linguistic background. However, most studies on language proficiency were designed for traditional learners (L2s). In this study, we examine oral proficiency development of 125 Spanish majors in light of four linguistic profiles: Extended Stay Abroad learners, Second Language Learners, Native Speakers, and Spanish Heritage Language Learners. Data were collected using an oral exam based on the ACTFL Oral Proficiency guidelines at the beginning and end of students' upper division coursework. Quantitative analysis reveals significant differences within groups for senior exit oral proficiency exam scores as well as level gains. These findings suggest that oral proficiency exams are a valuable tool for understanding differences in oral proficiency development for the four student categories. This information is pertinent for program assessment and has important research and pedagogical implications.
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:
Viera, C. & Arispe, K. (2022). Can Spanish Programs Evaluate Oral Proficiency Gains for All Learners?: An Empirical Analysis of Traditional and Nontraditional Spanish Majors' Oral Proficiency Development. Foreign Language Annals, 55(3), 832-852,
which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12635. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.
Viera, Carolina and Arispe, Kelly. (2022). "Can Spanish Programs Evaluate Oral Proficiency Gains for All Learners?: An Empirical Analysis of Traditional and Nontraditional Spanish Majors' Oral Proficiency Development". Foreign Language Annals, 55(3), 832-852. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12635
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