Increasing lower limb flexion may reduce risk of musculoskeletal injury for military personnel during landing. This study compared lower limb biomechanics between sexes and limbs when using normal and greater lower limb flexion to land with body borne load. Thirty-three participants (21 male, 12 female, age: 21.6±2.5 years, height: 1.7±0.1 m, weight: 74.5±9.0 kg) performed normal and flexed lower limb landings with four body borne loads: 20, 25, 30 and 35 kg. Hip and knee biomechanics, peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF), and the magnitude and direction of the GRF vector in frontal plane were submitted to two separate repeated measures ANOVAs to test the main and interaction effects of sex, load, and landing, as well as limb, load, and landing. Participants increased GRFs (between 5 and 10%) and hip and knee flexion moments when landing with body borne load, but decreased vertical GRF 19% and hip adduction and knee abduction joint range of motion and moments during the flexed landings. Both females and the non-dominant limb presented greater risk of musculoskeletal injury during landing. Females exhibited larger GRFs, increased hip adduction range of motion, and greater knee abduction moments compared to males. Whereas, the non-dominant limb increased knee abduction moments and exhibited a more laterally-directed frontal plane GRF vector compared to the dominant limb during the loaded landings. Yet, increasing lower limb flexion during landing does not appear to produce similar reductions in lower limb biomechanics related to injury risk for both females and the non-dominant limb during landing.
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Seymore, Kayla D.; Fain, AuraLea C.; Lobb, Nicholas J.; and Brown, Tyler N.. (2019). "Sex and Limb Impact Biomechanics Associated with Risk of Injury During Drop Landing with Body Borne Load". PLoS One, 14(2), e0211129-1 - e0211129-16.