Shadowboxing with Data: A Framework for Informing the Critical Analysis of Performance and Performance Measures
The practice of performance improvement requires measuring before and after conditions to determine if changes have occurred as a result of an intervention. Understanding how to take, make, interpret, and use measurements can go a long way toward improving performance improvement work and improving conditions for clients. The risk of not adequately analyzing measures leads to shadowboxing with data, where performance measures may not be equated with authentic performance issues.
Winiecki, Donald J.. (2009). "Shadowboxing with Data: A Framework for Informing the Critical Analysis of Performance and Performance Measures". Performance Improvement, 48(2), 31-37.