Dataset for Snow Attenuation of Infrasound Signals and Wind Noise
Summary & Purpose
Infrasound monitoring of nuclear explosions, snow avalanches, and earthquakes may be seasonally impacted by snow burial of infrasound stations. A number of factors may impact infrasound in snowpacks including: increased attenuation of the earthquake signals, reductions in wind noise, and changes in the sound speed through the snowpack. To assess these factors we installed a vertical array of sensors in the Sawtooth mountains of Idaho that was naturally buried by snow throughout the 2021-2022 winter. Using 38 earthquake signals that were detected by the array we calculate the frequency-dependent attenuation coefficient of infrasound by snowpacks and the speed of the sound wave. The attenuation coefficients were undetectable between 0-8 Hz, but then rose to 0.1 dB/cm at around 12 Hz, and above 12 Hz maintained a relatively constant 0.1 db/cm attenuation. The speed of sound in the snow was measured at 160 ± 51 m/s, significantly sub-sonic. Finally, there was a significant reduction in the amount of background noise measured for snow-buried compared to free-air sensors with 24 dB of reduction observed for high-wind speeds with only 20 cm of snow burial. This study provides a clearer understanding of how snow burial will bias the ability of infrasound sensors to assess the power and timing of infrasound signals used to monitor for natural and man-made hazards.
Date of Publication or Submission
This work was funded by U.S. Army CRREL, "Advancement of Snow Monitoring for Water Resources, Vehicle Mobility, and Hazard Mitigation: Using Optical, Microwave, Acoustic, and Seismic Techniques", # W913E520C0017, and by NASA Terrestrial Hydrology Program, "Spatiotemporal Patterns in Snow Remote Sensing", #NNX17AL61G.
Single Dataset or Series?
The array data is all broadband three channel sound data from infraBSU version2 sensors recorded at 200 Hz. Provided data have been converted to pascals.
The array data is split between two directories - a3m-upper and be4-lower. Within
each directory the data is split into each day of recording and into the three separate
channels. be4-lower is the lower set of 3 sensors in the vertical infrasound profile.
a3m-upper is the top sensor of the vertical profile, the free-air sensor at 2.0 m
and an unused channel. The vertical geometry of the sensors is:
- channel 1 - 0.33 m
- channel 2 - 0.66 m
- channel 3 - 1.0 m
- channel 1 - 1.33 m
- channel 2 - unused
- channel 3 - 2.0 m - free-air - horizontally separate from vertical profile
All sensors were horizontally located at the banner snotel (44.30 N -115.23 E).
The time index is in UTC.
December 2, 2021 - June 26, 2022
Privacy and Confidentiality Statement
Boise State is explicitly compliant with federal and state laws surrounding data privacy including the protection of personal financial information through the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, personal medical information through HIPAA, HITECH and other regulations. All human subject data (e.g., surveys) has been collected and managed only by personnel with adequate human subject protection certification.
Users are free to share, copy, distribute and use the dataset; to create or produce works from the dataset; to adapt, modify, transform and build upon the dataset as long as the user attributes any public use of the dataset, or works produced from the dataset, referencing the author(s) and DOI link. For any use or redistribution of the dataset, or works produced from it, the user must make clear to others the license of the dataset and keep intact any notices on the original dataset.
Disclaimer of Warranty
BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS ABOUT THE SUITABILITY OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN OR PROVIDED AS PART OF THE SYSTEM FOR ANY PURPOSE. ALL SUCH INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS WITH REGARD TO THIS INFORMATION, INCLUDING ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT.
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THE INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE SYSTEM COULD INCLUDE TECHNICAL INACCURACIES OR TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS. CHANGES ARE PERIODICALLY ADDED TO THE INFORMATION HEREIN. COMPANY AND/OR ITS RESPECTIVE SUPPLIERS MAY MAKE IMPROVEMENTS AND/OR CHANGES IN THE PRODUCT(S) AND/OR THE PROGRAM(S) DESCRIBED HEREIN AT ANY TIME, WITH OR WITHOUT NOTICE TO YOU.
BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY DOES NOT MAKE ANY ASSURANCES WITH REGARD TO THE ACCURACY OF THE RESULTS OR OUTPUT THAT DERIVES FROM USE OF THE SYSTEM.
Keskinen, Zachary and Johnson, Jeffrey B., "Dataset for Snow Attenuation of Infrasound Signals and Wind Noise" (2023). Boise State University Infrasound Data Repository. 12.