Abstract Title

Changes in Masp1 Expression Alters Genes Involved in Cement Gland Development in African Clawed Frogs

Additional Funding Sources

This project is supported by a 2021-2022 STEM Undergraduate Research Grant from the Higher Education Research Council.

Abstract

The mutations of Masp 1/3 genes, among humans and the Xenopus laevis species, have impacted the rate of embryonic development and craniofacial structures. To evaluate the impacts of Masp 1 genes on Xenopus laevis embryos through Bmp4 and Otx2 genes- BMp4genes are primarily used to signal cells to form a cement gland, whereas it expressed Otx2genes through the instruction of cement gland formation- we compared their function through in-situ hybridization and the consequential expression through embryotic stages 16-18 and 19. The expression of Masp1 genes indicates corresponding changes in the expression of Bmp4and Otx2. Through in-situ hybridization, red coloring marked regions where Masp1 genes were manipulated and stained craniofacial features that were directly impacted, whereas, purple coloring indicated the in-situ hybridization of injected genes. Thus, the expression patterns ofBmp4 and Otx2 in responses show the changes to Masp1 indicate the increase in Bmp4 mRNA through the development of the cement gland and that Masp1 has a direct impact on cement gland development. These discoveries may account that the Masp1 gene accounts for the mutations responsible for the embryonic development of the Xenopus laevis species that is synonymous with humans with 3MC Syndrome.

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COinS
 

Changes in Masp1 Expression Alters Genes Involved in Cement Gland Development in African Clawed Frogs

The mutations of Masp 1/3 genes, among humans and the Xenopus laevis species, have impacted the rate of embryonic development and craniofacial structures. To evaluate the impacts of Masp 1 genes on Xenopus laevis embryos through Bmp4 and Otx2 genes- BMp4genes are primarily used to signal cells to form a cement gland, whereas it expressed Otx2genes through the instruction of cement gland formation- we compared their function through in-situ hybridization and the consequential expression through embryotic stages 16-18 and 19. The expression of Masp1 genes indicates corresponding changes in the expression of Bmp4and Otx2. Through in-situ hybridization, red coloring marked regions where Masp1 genes were manipulated and stained craniofacial features that were directly impacted, whereas, purple coloring indicated the in-situ hybridization of injected genes. Thus, the expression patterns ofBmp4 and Otx2 in responses show the changes to Masp1 indicate the increase in Bmp4 mRNA through the development of the cement gland and that Masp1 has a direct impact on cement gland development. These discoveries may account that the Masp1 gene accounts for the mutations responsible for the embryonic development of the Xenopus laevis species that is synonymous with humans with 3MC Syndrome.