Abstract Title

Understanding Nanostructured Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Sodium-Ion Batteries

Additional Funding Sources

This project was made possible by the NSF Idaho EPSCoR Program and by the National Science Foundation under Award No. OIA-1757324.

Abstract

Sodium-ion batteries are a promising alternative for large-scale lithium-ion battery systems. A battery using sodium is of high interest because of its similarity to lithium chemistry and its low cost. The two systems have similar chemical properties, which draws attention to the possibility of a sodium-based battery. Also, utilizing sodium is a cheaper alternative because of its abundance in the Earth’s crust.

The goal of this project is to develop cathode materials for a high-performance sodium-ion battery that could compete with preexisting lithium-ion batteries. In this work, co-precipitation methods were used to develop transition metal precursors which were then calcined with sodium salts through solid-state reactions to create the cathode material. These precursors could then be doped with other elements to form an intergrowth structure that improves electrochemical performance in cathode materials. The optimal arrangement of such material was a mixture of P2 and O3 intergrowth phases. A P-phase has stability that handles sodiation/desodiation while also providing high power, conversely the O-phase maintains high capacity. These materials were analyzed using XRD and SEM to see their structure and morphology. They were then mixed with additives, creating laminates for the coin cells. Once assembled, the electrochemical performance could be tested using an Arbin battery cycler.

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Understanding Nanostructured Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Sodium-Ion Batteries

Sodium-ion batteries are a promising alternative for large-scale lithium-ion battery systems. A battery using sodium is of high interest because of its similarity to lithium chemistry and its low cost. The two systems have similar chemical properties, which draws attention to the possibility of a sodium-based battery. Also, utilizing sodium is a cheaper alternative because of its abundance in the Earth’s crust.

The goal of this project is to develop cathode materials for a high-performance sodium-ion battery that could compete with preexisting lithium-ion batteries. In this work, co-precipitation methods were used to develop transition metal precursors which were then calcined with sodium salts through solid-state reactions to create the cathode material. These precursors could then be doped with other elements to form an intergrowth structure that improves electrochemical performance in cathode materials. The optimal arrangement of such material was a mixture of P2 and O3 intergrowth phases. A P-phase has stability that handles sodiation/desodiation while also providing high power, conversely the O-phase maintains high capacity. These materials were analyzed using XRD and SEM to see their structure and morphology. They were then mixed with additives, creating laminates for the coin cells. Once assembled, the electrochemical performance could be tested using an Arbin battery cycler.