Lorenzo’s Letters: A Basque Immigrant’s Experience in the American West

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In the words of John Bieter's Basque grandfather the "rough" Idaho mountains where he herded sheep were "bald/sparse but pretty steep in places where [they] worked in summer, totally forested with pines." Bieter describes the struggles of nomadic immigrant Basque sheepherders with this harsh, semi-arid terrain of mountain valleys, foothills, and cliffs, dependent on public domain grazing lands.

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