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Drylands cover 40 % of the global land surface and more than 3 billion people worldwide are dependent on the ecosystem services (ES) that they provide (Hoover et al., 2020). Dryland ecosystems are subject to multiple forces of change, including climate change, invasive plants, and increasing wildfires (Maestre et al., 2016). For example, human pressure and land use intensification can quickly induce changes in healthy drylands that lead to degradation, thus reducing their capacity to recover from extreme climate events (Gunderson, 2000, Sun et al., 2021). We define degradation as a transition from a functional native ecosystem to an undesired state that may include lower biodiversity and provide fewer ecosystem services (Maestre et al., 2016). For many drylands ecosystems, reversing degradation is challenging, due to hysteresis (Scheffer et al., 2001, Suding et al., 2004). Potential cascading feedbacks between multiple drivers of change emphasize an urgent need for research on socio-ecological dynamics in drylands to inform sustainable land management (Nkonya, Winslow, Reed, Mortimore, & Mirzabaev, 2011).

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This is an author-produced, peer-reviewed version of this article. © 2023, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license. The final, definitive version of this document can be found online at Landscape and Urban Planning,

Available for download on Wednesday, April 01, 2026