2019 Graduate Student Showcase

Title of Submission

Successful Rulemaking to List Species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Degree Program

Public Policy and Administration, PhD

Major Advisor Name

Monica Hubbard

Type of Submission

Scholarly Poster


The ESA was enacted in 1973 to protect and recover species threatened with or endangered by extinction. Currently there are 2,344 species listed under the ESA. The federal rulemaking process to list a species can be lengthy and arduous, proving detrimental to the survival of the species. This dissertation identifies factors which influence the federal ESA listing process by examining 86 proposed rules published by U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service over a 5-year period. Factors found to influence the listing process include: solicited peer review input, new or additional scientific data/information, interest groups, public commenting, and state government political pressures.

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