Indirect Remote Sensing Techniques for Long Term Monitoring of CO2 Leakage in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Review

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Development of monitoring framework for geological carbon sequestration (GCS) is challenging due to the involved subsurface uncertainties. Remote sensing (RS) methods gain edge over other methods for long term monitoring of CO2 leakage through their wide spatial coverage and minimal environmental impact. Furthermore, indirect RS methods use a proxy, such as vegetation stress, to infer subsurface leakage. Indirect RS methods are low-cost compared to some direct RS methods; however they have several limitations since these methods rely on many uncontrollable external factors. Hence, this review aims to evaluate the sensitivity of indirect RS techniques to identify site-specific CO2 leakage.