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The timing of the final collision and particularly the disappearance of the gateway between the Rheic and Tethyan oceans is quite controversial and poorly established. The accurate timing on the gateway closure is vitally important for the understanding of global sea-level fluctuations, ocean circulation, regional and global environments, salinity and reorganization of the thermohaline circulation, enhanced deep water organic carbon production in the western Tethys and the overall decline of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we present a new approach by applying warm-water benthic foraminifera (WWBF) data to precisely constraint the Rheic-Tethys gateway (RTG) closure, utilizing taxonomic and statistical methods. The link between the RTG closure with the profound biotic transformations in the oceans, sea-level, and expansion of the Gondwana ice sheet is discussed herein. The records of the WWBF in the studied regions precisely constraint the exact moment of the RTG cutoff and much stronger support a linkage of the cutoff and the onset of Bashkirian glaciation.


The published title is "The Formation of the Alleghenian Isthmus Triggered the Bashkirian Glaciation: Constraints from Warm-Water Benthic Foraminifera".

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This is an author-produced, peer-reviewed version of this article. © 2019, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 license. The final, definitive version of this document can be found online at Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.08.012