White Certificate Trading: A Dying Concept or Just Making Its Debut? Part I: Market Status and Trends
Energy-saving certificate trading programs within the U.S. have not had the success of their counterparts abroad due to the energy efficiency reduction targets not being stringent enough to incite trading. Programs exist in Italy, Denmark, France, the UK and Australia, and each is unique in what it allows to qualify, its units, and other details. The Italian market is the most robust in terms of volumes traded, but programs in Australia are strong and growing.
Aldrich, Elizabeth Lokey and Koerner, Cassandra L.. (2018). "White Certificate Trading: A Dying Concept or Just Making Its Debut? Part I: Market Status and Trends". The Electricity Journal, 31(3), 52-63.