As CMOS technology continues to evolve, the
supply voltages are decreasing while at the same time the transistor threshold voltages are remaining relatively constant. Making matters worse, the inherent gain available from the nano-CMOS transistors is dropping. Traditional techniques for achieving high-gain by cascoding become less useful in nano-scale CMOS processes. Horizontal cascading (multi-stage) must be used in order to realize high-gain op-amps in low supply voltage processes. This paper discusses indirect compensation techniques for op-amps using split-length devices. A reversed-nested indirect compensated (RNIC) topology, employing double pole-zero cancellation, is illustrated for the design of three-stage op-amps. The RNIC topology is then extended to the design of three-stage fully-differential op-amps. Novel three-stage fully-differential gain-stage cascade structures are presented with efficient common mode feedback (CMFB) stabilization.
Simulation results are presented for the designed RNIC fullydifferential three-stage op-amps. The fully-differential three-stage op-amps, designed in 0.5 μm CMOS, typically exhibit 18 MHz unity-gain frequency, 82 dB open-loop DC gain, nearly 300 ns transient settling and 72° phase-margin for a 500 pF load.
© 2010 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. DOI: 10.1109/MWSCAS.2010.5548896
Saxena, Vishal and Baker, R. Jacob. (2010). "Indirect Compensation Techniques for Three-Stage Fully-Differential Op-Amps". 2010 53rd IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), 588-591.