Low-cost and conformal phased array antennas (PAAs) on flexible substrates are of particular interest in many applications. The major deterrents to developing flexible PAA systems are the difficulty in integrating antenna and electronics circuits on the flexible surface, as well as the bendability and oxidation rate of radiating elements and electronics circuits. In this research, graphene ink was developed from graphene flakes and used to inkjet print the radiating element and the active channel of field effect transistors (FETs). Bending and oxidation tests were carried out to validate the application of printed flexible graphene thin films in flexible electronics. An inkjet-printed graphene-based 1 × 2 element phased array antenna was designed and fabricated. Graphene-based field effect transistors were used as switches in the true-time delay line of the phased array antenna. The graphene phased array antenna was 100% inkjet printed on top of a 5 mil flexible Kapton® substrate, at room temperature. Four possible azimuth steering angles were designed for −26.7°, 0°, 13°, and 42.4°. Measured far-field patterns show good agreement with simulation results.
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Monne, Mahmuda Akter; Grubb, Peter Mack; Stern, Harold; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T.; and Chen, Maggie Yihong. (2020). "Inkjet-Printed Graphene-Based 1 × 2 Phased Array Antenna". Micromachines, 11(9), 863. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/MI11090863