Degrees of Cooperation in Dynamic Spectrum Access for Distributed Cognitive Radios

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The Federal Radio Act under Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allows predetermined users the right to transmit at a given frequency. Non-licensed users are regarded as “harmful interference” and not allowed to transmit in a certain frequency bands. As the demands for wireless communication become more and more pervasive, the wireless devices must find a way for the right to transmit at frequencies in the extremely limited radio band. However, there exist a large number of frequency bands that have considerable, and sometimes periodic, dormant time intervals. In the literature, those frequency bands refer to spectrum holes [1,2]. So there is a dilemma that on one hand the mobile users have no spectrum to transmit, while on the other hand some spectrums are not fully utilized.