Document Type


Publication Date




Debriefing is an important step in game-based learning environments. In the present study, the effect of different debriefing strategies in terms of two factors, grouping (self vs. team) and timing (in-game vs. post-game), was investigated on the motivation and self-efficacy levels of students. In a 2x2 ANOVA design, 62 sixth grade students were randomly assigned into two debriefing groups: self-debriefing and team debriefing. About half of members in each group performed either one of the two debriefing: in-game debriefing or post-game debriefing. Students in the self-debriefing as well as in the team-briefing group played the game three days a week over nine weeks. As students finished the task, motivation and self-efficacy scales were administered and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Findings indicate that students showed higher motivation and self-efficacy scores in the team debriefing than in the self-debriefing. Moreover, the in-game debriefing group outperformed the post-game debriefing group in terms of self-efficacy and motivation levels. Semi-structured interviews supported the quantitative results that students benefited more from collaborative debriefing sessions.

Copyright Statement

This is an author-produced, peer-reviewed version of this article. The final, definitive version of this document can be found online at the Journal of Educational Computing Research, published by Sage. Copyright restrictions may apply. doi: 10.1177/0735633115598496