Data Storage in Cellular DNA: Contextualizing Diverse Encoding Schemes

Document Type


Publication Date



Nature has been using DNA to store biological data for millions of years, and fnally humans are learning to use the same medium for our own data. In this paper, we survey the feld of cellular DNA encoding, where encoding schemes are used to insert data into pcDNA and ncDNA areas while bypassing the biological restrictions associated with those areas. We frst characterize the unique bio-restrictions associated with existing cellular DNA encoding schemes, then we contrast the schemes with respect to the restrictions they meet, supported features, and implementation details. We discuss the pros and cons of the implementation of each encoding scheme, and make recommendations accordingly. Finally, we highlight existing gaps, and provide our insight into future research directions.