Repeat Citizens in Motor Vehicle Stops: A Black Experience
This paper explores the possible existence of the repeat phenomenon and their impact on racial disparities in police motor vehicle stops. The repeat phenomenon is the existence of a small proportion of people or places that account for a much larger proportion of events. While this phenomenon has been identified and discussed in other areas of criminal justice and criminology, it has not been extended to motor vehicle stops. The current study examines the existence of repeat citizens in a population of motor vehicle stops (N = 4775) from a Mid-western city during 2001. A small, but significant, concentration of motor vehicle stops were discovered among a few citizens and significant predictors of citizen performance included citizen race, gender, age, residency, time of the stop, and reason for the stop.
Growette Bostaph, Lisa M.. (2008). "Repeat Citizens in Motor Vehicle Stops: A Black Experience". Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 6(1), 41-63.