Sentencing Reforms and the Supreme Court : The Implications of Apprendi, Blakely, and Booker

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Contribution to Books

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In this chapter the author presents a synopsis of the history of the sentencing reform movement. The sentencing reform movement began in the late 1970s with the creation of sentencing commissions, sentencing guidelines, and mandatory minimum penalties. Over the last 35 years these reforms have been subject to both criticism and support and recently the U.S. Supreme Court rulings in Apprendi (2000), Blakely (2004), and Booker (2005) have had a marked impact on the discretionary power of judges.

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