Document Type


Publication Date



While ice has very low solubility for salts compared to water, small amounts of ions are doped into ice crystals. These small ion dopants can alter the fundamental physical and chemical properties of ice, such as its structure and electrical conductivity. Therefore, these results could have a direct impact on the chemical reactivity of ice and ice surfaces. Here, we examine the influence of the uptake of three salts—ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4]—on ice Ih formation using capillary electrophoresis. Using both cation and anion modes, we observed and quantified the uptake of individual ions into the ice. Our results indicate that anions have a higher propensity for uptake into ice Ih crystals.

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2023 Authors. This article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Included in

Chemistry Commons