Analytical and Semi-Analytical Tools for the Design of Oscillatory Pumping Tests
Oscillatory pumping tests—in which ﬂow is varied in a periodic fashion—provide a method for understanding aquifer heterogeneity that is complementary to strategies such as slug testing and constant-rate pumping tests. During oscillatory testing, pressure data collected at non-pumping wells can be processed to extract metrics, such as signal amplitude and phase lag, from a time series. These metrics are robust against common sensor problems (including drift and noise) and have been shown to provide information about aquifer heterogeneity. Field implementations of oscillatory pumping tests for characterization, however, are not common and thus there are few guidelines for their design and implementation. Here, we use available analytical solutions from the literature to develop design guidelines for oscillatory pumping tests, while considering practical ﬁeld constraints. We present two key analytical results for design and analysis of oscillatory pumping tests. First, we provide methods for choosing testing frequencies and ﬂow rates which maximize the signal amplitude that can be expected at a distance from an oscillating pumping well, given design constraints such as maximum/minimum oscillator frequency and maximum volume cycled. Preliminary data from ﬁeld testing helps to validate the methodology. Second, we develop a semi-analytical method for computing the sensitivity of oscillatory signals to spatially distributed aquifer ﬂow parameters. This method can be quickly applied to understand the ‘‘sensed’’ extent of an aquifer at a given testing frequency. Both results can be applied given only bulk aquifer parameter estimates, and can help to optimize design of oscillatory pumping test campaigns.
Cardiff, Michael and Barrash, Warren. (2015). "Analytical and Semi-Analytical Tools for the Design of Oscillatory Pumping Tests". Groundwater, 53(6), 896-907.