The Basque pro-independence terrorist group ETA (an acronym for what translates to ‘Freedom for the Basque Country’) announced a definitive ceasefire in 2011. A year later, I began a PhD on how the Basque conflict could be understood from the life stories of ETA activists. After completing my research, I asked myself: What kind of tensions emerged during the interview process with ETA activists who collaborated in my research taking into account my family background and my Spanish identity? Instead of just appearing as a bidirectional relation between the narrator and the interviewer, inter-subjectivity reveals more powerful mechanisms as it helps reveal hidden collective traumas of the Spanish population where I, as the historian, become part of the story.

About the Author

Dr. Nicolas Buckley holds a bachelor’s degree in Political Science from the ‘Universidad Complutense de Madrid’. During his undergraduate studies, he spent an Erasmus year at the ‘University of Warsaw’, Poland. Upon graduation, he completed a master’s degree in Dispute and Conflict Resolution at the ‘School of Oriental and African Studies’ at the ‘University of London’. Afterwards, he completed his doctoral thesis on the oral life stories of ETA activists (Basque Conflict), in the Department of History at ‘Royal Holloway-University of London’. During this period, he worked as a researcher at the ‘Cañada Blanch Centre for Spanish Contemporary Studies’ at the ‘London School of Economics and Political Science’. This thesis was published in English (Centre for Basque Studies Press) and in Spanish (Siglo XXI). Recently, Buckley spent seven years in Ecuador working as a professor at the ‘Universidad Metropolitana del Ecuador’ and ‘Universidad Central del Ecuador’. He's is now working as a professor on post graduate studies at ‘Universidad Europea de Madrid’. He is also in the middle of a research about Ecuadorian indigenous women.


  • PhD in History. Royal Holloway University of London, 2018
  • Master in Dispute and Conflict Resolution. The School of Oriental and African Studies, 2011
  • Bachelor degree in Political Science. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2011