Summary & Purpose

Birds aim to optimize resources for feeding young and self-maintenance by timing reproduction to coincide with peak food availability. When reproduction is mistimed, birds could incur costs that affect their survival. We studied whether nesting phenology correlated with the apparent survival of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) from two distinct populations and examined trends in clutch initiation dates. We estimated apparent survival using multistate mark-recapture models with nesting timing, nesting success, sex, age, and weather covariates. Nesting timing predicted the apparent survival of successful adults; however, the effect differed between populations. Early nesting kestrels had higher apparent survival than later nesters in the western population, where kestrels have a relatively long nesting season. At the eastern site, where kestrels have a relatively short nesting season, the pattern was reversed — later nesters had higher apparent survival than earlier nesters. Nesting timing did not affect the apparent survival of adults with failed nests suggesting that the energetic cost of producing fledglings contributed to the timing effect. Finally, clutch initiation dates advanced in the western population and remained static in the eastern population. Given that both populations have seasonal declines in productivity, population-specific survival patterns provide insight into seasonal trade-offs. Specifically, nesting timing effects on survival paralleled productivity declines in the western population and inverse patterns of survival and reproduction in the eastern population suggest a condition-dependent trade-off. Concomitant seasonal declines in reproduction and survival may facilitate population-level responses to earlier springs, whereas seasonal trade-offs may constrain phenology shifts and increase vulnerability to mismatch.

Author Identifier

John A. Smallwood, ORCID: 0000-0002-1207-4061
Anjolene R. Hunt, ORCID: 0000-0002-7739-8219
Julie A. Heath, ORCID: 0000-0002-9606-1689

Date of Publication or Submission

4-18-2022

DOI

https://doi.org/10.18122/bio_data.9.boisestate

Funding Citation

Funding for this project was provided by a grant from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the US Department of Defense (US DoD; Award Number: RC-2702) and the Boise State and American Kestrel Partnership Adopt-A-Box Partners. Release time for JAS was provided by the Faculty Scholarship Program, Montclair State University.

Single Dataset or Series?

Single Dataset

Data Format

*.xlsx

Data Attributes

Band: USGS band number of marked bird
Sex: sex of the bird
ch: encounter history with 0 meaning not encountered and an alpha code that indicates strata (encounter code - see tab in data)

Year (in Winter Temperatures): year of Nov-Dec months of winter
Anomaly (see methods in paper)
Location: specific study area

Year (in clutch initiation dates): year of nest
State: specific study area
clutch_initiation_date: day of year when first egg was laid

Time Period

1997-2017

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Use Restrictions

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Comments

Geographic Locations: Idaho and New Jersey

Available for download on Wednesday, March 25, 2122

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