Summary & Purpose
Summary: 1. Warming temperatures cause changes in growing seasons and prey that drive earlier breeding by birds, especially dietary specialists within homogenous habitat. Less is known about how generalists respond to climate-associated shifts in growing seasons or prey, which may be occurring at different rates across land cover types used by predators. 2. We studied whether breeding phenology of a generalist predator, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), in a mosaic of non-irrigated shrub/grasslands and irrigated crops and pastures, was associated with changes in growing seasons and, presumably, prey abundance. We examined the potential relationship between prey abundance (small mammals) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within a breeding season, recorded changes in NDVI to estimate the start of the growing season (SoGS) in irrigated and non-irrigated lands, and used both estimates of annual SoGS to predict the timing of kestrel nesting from 1992-2015. Finally, we related changes in the timing of SoGS in irrigated lands to planting of crops and weather. 3. A positive relationship between NDVI and small mammal abundance suggested that NDVI was a useful proxy for estimating shifts in the timing of prey abundance over time. NDVI-estimated SoGS advanced significantly in irrigated land cover (β = -1.09 ± 0.30 SE) but not in non-irrigated land cover (β = -0.57 ± 0.53) since 1992. Average date of nesting was positively associated with the SoGS in irrigated lands and the average date of nesting advanced 15 days in the last 24 years. Irrigated SoGS advance was associated with earlier planting of crops after warmer winters, which have become more common. 4. Results show that despite different patterns of change in land cover types, kestrels responded to shifts in prey. Kestrels may preferentially track prey in irrigated areas compared to prey from non-irrigated areas because irrigated areas provided higher quality prey, or earlier prey abundance may release former constraints on other selective pressures to breed early, such as seasonal declines in fecundity or competition for high-quality mates. 5. This is one of the first examples of an association between human adaptations to climate change and shifts in breeding phenology of wildlife.
Date of Publication or Submission
Funding for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation (DEB 1145552 and DBI 1263167), the National Science Foundation Idaho EPSCoR REU Program (EPS-814387), Boise State Provost’s Office Work Study Award, Boise State University’s Department of Biological Sciences and Raptor Research Center, the Golden Eagle Audubon Society, and the U.S. Geological Survey’s Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center.
Single Dataset or Series?
*.xlsx, *.csv, *.zip
The data consist of an Excel 2007 workbook (*.xlsx) with seven worksheets. Each of these worksheets has been converted to comma separated value (*.csv) format and compressed into a Windows compressed (*.zip) file. Attribute names are self-descriptive or else explained in the data.
Privacy and Confidentiality Statement
Boise State University is explicitly compliant with federal and state laws surrounding data privacy including the protection of personal financial information through the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, personal medical information through HIPAA, HITECH and other regulations. All human subject data (e.g., surveys) has been collected and managed only by personnel with adequate human subject protection certification.
General Restrictions: Users are free to share, copy, distribute and use the dataset; to create or produce works from the dataset; to adapt, modify, transform and build upon the dataset as long as the user attributes any public use of the dataset, or works produced from the dataset, referencing the author(s) and DOI link. For any use or redistribution of the dataset, or works produced from it, the user must make clear to others the license of the dataset and keep intact any notices on the original dataset.
NSF Restrictions: Data will be provided to all who agree to appropriately acknowledge the National Science Foundation (NSF), Idaho EPSCoR and the individual investigators responsible for the data set. By downloading these data and using them to produce further analysis and/or products, users agree to appropriately acknowledge the National Science Foundation (NSF), Idaho EPSCoR and the individual investigators responsible for the data set. Use constraints: Acceptable uses of data provided by Idaho EPSCoR include any academic, research, educational, governmental, recreational, or other not-for-profit activities. Any use of data provided by the Idaho EPSCoR must acknowledge Idaho EPSCoR and the funding source(s) that contributed to the collection of the data. Users are expected to inform the Idaho EPSCoR Office and the PI(s) responsible for the data of any work or publications based on data provided.
Disclaimer of Warranty
BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS ABOUT THE SUITABILITY OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN OR PROVIDED AS PART OF THE SYSTEM FOR ANY PURPOSE. ALL SUCH INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS WITH REGARD TO THIS INFORMATION, INCLUDING ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THE SYSTEM. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE SYSTEM COULD INCLUDE TECHNICAL INACCURACIES OR TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS. CHANGES ARE PERIODICALLY ADDED TO THE INFORMATION HEREIN. COMPANY AND/OR ITS RESPECTIVE SUPPLIERS MAY MAKE IMPROVEMENTS AND/OR CHANGES IN THE PRODUCT(S) AND/OR THE PROGRAM(S) DESCRIBED HEREIN AT ANY TIME, WITH OR WITHOUT NOTICE TO YOU. BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY DOES NOT MAKE ANY ASSURANCES WITH REGARD TO THE ACCURACY OF THE RESULTS OR OUTPUT THAT DERIVES FROM USE OF THE SYSTEM.
Compressed (zipped) version of data in comma-separated value format.
Smith, Shawn Heath; Steenhoff, Karen; McClure, Christopher J.W.; and Heath, Julie. (2016). Data Associated with 'Earlier Nesting by Predatory Bird is Associated with Human Responses to Climate Change' [Data set]. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.18122/B2PC78