Publication Date


Date of Final Oral Examination (Defense)


Type of Culminating Activity


Degree Title

Masters of Science in Exercise and Sport Studies



Major Advisor

Eric L. Dugan, Ph.D.

Major Advisor

Laura J. Petranek, Ph.D.


Yong Gao, Ph.D.


Previous research has addressed the effectiveness of attentional focus instructions in improving golf performance with a single training session. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of external (EF) attentional focus instructions on recreational golfers’ performance over a distributed training period and extended retention interval. Performance was measured by club head velocity (CHV) and X-factor as both have been correlated with greater performance. The current study extends the work of An, Wulf, and Kim (2013), by increasing the training period and retention interval. It was hypothesized EF group would have greater CHV and X-factor measurements during the training and retention interval compared to a control (C) group. Repeated measures ANCOVA tested for significant differences in CHV and X-factor measures between EF and C groups. No significant main effects (time or group) or interactions were found during training period or retention tests for either CHV or X-factor. Future studies should determine if the cue used in the current study was appropriate for eliciting an improvement in performance, or if different components of the swing needs to be emphasized for greater performance improvements.