Replicated Photonic Crystals by Atomic Layer Deposition within Holographically Defined Polymer Templates

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We report the replication of holographically defined photonic crystals using multistage atomic layer deposition. Low- and high-temperature atomic layer depositions were combined with selective etching to deposit and remove multiple conformal thin films within three-dimensional polymer templates. Using intermediate Al2O3 inverse replicas, temperature-sensitive SU-8 photonic crystal templates were faithfully replicated with TiO2 and GaP, greatly increasing the dielectric contrasts of the photonic crystals. Optical measurements are in good agreement with the calculated band structures.