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Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has become a powerful tool for the fabrication of high quality 3-dimentional photonic crystals (PCs) from both inorganic (opal) and organic (holographically patterned polymer) templates [1,2]. With ALD, highly conformal films can be grown with a precision of 0.05 nm, which, when combined with the availability of a wide range of low temperature film growth protocols, enables a high degree of control over material and structural properties to precisely tune optical properties [3]. Two-dimensional photonic crystals have been developed extensively for applications in optical interconnects, beam steering, and sensor devices; and are predominantly fabricated by electron-beam lithography. The optical properties of 2D photonic crystal slab waveguides are determined by the precision of the lithography process, with limited post fabrication tunability.

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©2006 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/LEOS.2006.278973