Electron hop funnels have been fabricated using a Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). Measurements of the hop funnel I-V curve and electron energy distribution have been made using gated field emitters as the electron source. The charged particle simulation Lorentz 2E has been used to model the hop funnel charging and to predict the I-V and energy characteristics. The results of this comparison indicate that the simulation can be used to design hop funnel structures for use in various applications.
Lester, Charles; Browning, Jim; and Matthews, Lael. (2011). "Electron Hop Funnel Measurements and Comparison with the Lorentz-2E Simulation". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 39(1), 555-561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2010.2087775