A delta-sigma modulation analog-to-digital converter (ADC) has many benefits over the use of a pipeline ADC in a CMOS image sensor. This includes lower power, noise reduction, ease of maximizing the input range, and simpler signal routing for large arrays. Multiple delta-sigma modulation ADC is required in a CMOS image sensor, one for each pixel column. Any voltage threshold mismatch between ADCs will introduce gain and offset error in its transfer function, which will lead to fix pattern noise. Correcting these gain and offset error for every ADCs in the image sensor will require a complex digital signal processor. Therefore, a technique to minimize the effects of gain error in a delta-sigma modulation ADC for CMOS image sensor is discussed.
Yap, Kuangming and Baker, R. Jacob. (2010). "Gain Error Correction for CMOS Image Sensor Using Delta-Sigma Modulation". 2010 IEEE Workshop on Microelectronics and Electron Devices (WMED), 1-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WMED.2010.5453753