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In this paper, while considering the impact of antenna correlation and the interference from neighboring users, we analyze channel estimation and training sequence design for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) two-way relay (TWR) systems. To this end, we propose to decompose the bidirectional transmission links into two phases, i.e., the multiple access (MAC) phase and the broadcasting (BC) phase. By considering the Kronecker-structured channel model, we derive the optimal linear minimum mean-square-error (LMMSE) channel estimators. The corresponding training designs for the MAC and BC phases are then formulated and solved to improve channel estimation accuracy. For the general scenario of training sequence design for both phases, two iterative training design algorithms are proposed that are verified to produce training sequences that result in near optimal channel estimation performance. Furthermore, for specific practical scenarios, where the covariance matrices of the channel or disturbances are of particular structures, the optimal training sequence design guidelines are derived. In order to reduce training overhead, the minimum required training length for channel estimation in both the MAC and BC phases are also derived. Comprehensive simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed training designs.

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© 2015 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. doi: 10.1109/TWC.2015.2390645