User-Defined Backtracking Criteria for Symbolic Execution

Document Type


Publication Date



Symbolic execution is a path-sensitive program analysis technique that aids users with program verification. To avoid exploring infeasible paths, symbolic execution checks the prefix of a current path for feasibility by adding a branch constraint to the path prefix and passing the formula to an off-the-shelf SMT solver for an evaluation. If the solver returns SAT/UNSAT, then the prefix is marked as feasible/infeasible.

However, the solver can also return an UNKNOWN result, which means it cannot evaluate the formula. In addition, an operation occurring before a constraint can cause over-approximation that propagates to the solver's result. Moreover, symbolic execution might time out the solver if it takes too long to run. A symbolic execution tool might handle these uncertainties by backtracking or by continuing its exploration of the prefix.

This paper examines the behavior of path constraints beyond uncertain backtracking points. String and integer constraints are collected from concrete program execution via dynamic symbolic execution. These constraints are used to analyze how over- approximation in a path prefix affects the completeness of its extensions. We also examine variations in time required to decide a path constraint. Our findings suggest that a custom backtracking criteria defined by the user does improve the completeness of symbolic execution.