This paper explains and evaluates the potential and limitations of conducting Cross-Well Radar (CWR) in sandy soils. Implementing the experiment and data collection in the absence of any scattering object, and in the presence of an acrylic plate (a representative of dielectric objects, such as DNAPL (dense non-aqueous phase liquid) pools, etc.), as a contrasting object in a water-saturated soil is also studied. To be able to image the signature of any object, more than one pair of receiving and transmitting antennas are required. The paper describes a method to achieve repeatable, reliable, and reproducible laboratory results for different transmitter-receiver combinations. Different practical methods were evaluated for collecting multiple-depth data. Similarity of the corresponding results and problems involved in each method are studied and presented. The data show that the frequency response of a saturated coarse-grained soil is smooth due to the continuous and dominant nature of water in saturated soils. The repeatability and potential symmetry of patterns across some borehole axes provide a valuable tool for validation of experimental results. The potential asymmetry across other borehole axes is used as a tool to evaluate the strength of the perturbation on the electromagnetic field due to hidden objects and to evaluate the feasibility of detecting dielectric objects (such as DNAPL pools, etc.) using CWR. The experimental simulation designed for this paper models a real-life problem in a smaller scale, in a controlled laboratory environment, and within homogenous soils uniformly dry or fully water-saturated, with a uniform dielectric property contrast between the inclusion and background. The soil in the field will not be as homogenous and uniform. The scaling process takes into consideration that as the size is scaled down; the frequency needs to be scaled up. It is noteworthy that this scaling process needs to be extensively studied and validated for future extension of the models to real field applications. For example, to extend the outcome of this work to the real field, the geometry (antennas size, their separation and inclusion size) needs to be scaled up back to the field size, while soil grains will not scale up. Therefore, soil, water and air coupling effects and interactions observed at the laboratory scale do not scale up in the field, and may have different unforeseen effects that require extensive study.
Farid, Arvin; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; and Rappaport, Carey M.. (2009). "Cross-Well Radar I: Experimental Simulation of Cross-Well Tomography and Validation". Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 135(9), 1209-1218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000028