Metacognition research has focused on the degree to which nonhuman primates share humans’ capacity to monitor their cognitive processes. Convincing evidence now exists that monkeys can engage in metacognitive monitoring. By contrast, few studies have explored metacognitive control in monkeys and the available evidence of metacognitive control supports multiple explanations. The current study addresses this situation by exploring the capacity of human participants and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to adjust their study behavior in a perceptual categorization task. Humans and monkeys were found to increase their study for high-difficulty categories suggesting that both share the capacity to exert metacognitive control.
Redford, Joshua. (2010). "Evidence of Metacognitive Control by Humans and Monkeys in a Perceptual Categorization Task". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36(1), 248-254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017809