To evaluate the amplitude vs offset response of GPR to small distributions of hydrocarbon contamination, I acquired multi-offset 450 MHz GPR data in TE and TM modes over a buried rectangular tank filled with gasoline saturated sand. All dimensions of the tank were less than one wavelength at the characteristic antenna frequency. The permittivity ratio at the moist sand/gasoline sand boundary, estimated by fitting the Fresnel equations to the observed amplitudes and by Brewster's Angle analysis, differed from that obtained through migration velocity analysis by no more than 12%. 2D FDTD modeling reproduced amplitude characteristics for 3 o f 4 target/polarization combinations and explained some deviations from the Fresnel curves. Additional deviations may be caused by out-of-plane polarization effects or heterogeneity not included in the 2D model.
Bradford, John H.. (2010). "2D Ground-Penetrating Radar AVO Response to a 3D Dielectric Permittivity Anomaly". 2010 13th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICGPR.2010.5550196