Spectral decomposition, by which a time series is transformed from the 1D time/amplitude domain to the 2D time/spectrum domain, has become a popular and useful tool in seismic exploration for hydrocarbons. The windowed, or short-time Fourier transform (STFT) was one early approach to computing the time-frequency (t-f) distribution. This method relies on the user selecting a fixed time window, then computing the Fourier spectrum within the time window while sliding the window along the length of the trace. The primary limitation of the STFT is the fixed window which prevents either time localization of high frequency components (if a long window is used) or spectral resolution of the low-frequency components (if a short window is used).
Bradford, John H. and Wu, Yafei. (2007). "Instantaneous Spectral Analysis: Time-Frequency Mapping via Wavelet Matching with Application to Contaminated-Site Characterization by 3D GPR". The Leading Edge, 26(8), . http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.2769559